Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
SST Style guide for authors
Article components, style and format
The article style is outlined below, in the order of content:
- Main (article) title appears on first page and in table of contents. This should be succinct and reflect the articles main contribution(s). Times New Roman 24 pt. Bold type.
Initial capital only e.g. : ‘The story of a legend: my life in the woods’
- Author names are normally written in full. e.g. : ‘Catherine Hunt’. Times New Roman 16 pt.
- Author affiliation. The affiliation should include, in this order and with this punctuation:
University, Country. (i.e. University of Leeds, UK). Times New Roman 12 pt.
- 4. This is a brief summary to ascertain the article’s aims and argument. The word range for abstracts in regular articles is 100-150 words. For Review Articles 80-100 words. Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Keywords. Five keywords are the limit. Compound words or phrases count as one keyword (e.g. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, security technology). Acronyms are not to be used as keywords unless they are significantly referenced in the content of the article. Keywords are useful for search engine optimization and should be selected with care. Keywords should be listed in alphabetical order. Initial capital and keywords are used by search engines and authors looking through abstracts. Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Opening page quotations (placed before the introduction) are accepted. They should be right-centred on the page. The opening page quotation should be short (ideally no more than 3 lines, as longer opening page quotations affect the placement of the introduction, which should ideally begin on the first page). Times New Roman 12 pt. Roman font type.
- Introduction. The heading ‘Introduction’ only should be used. No subtitles.
- Body text is in Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Headings. All sections of the article (including the beginning) should have principal headings.
Regular articles can include up to three levels of headings. The author should ensure that the heading hierarchy is clear, consistent and logical. If two or three levels are used, they must be typographically differentiated clearly.
Review articles will typically use headings more sparingly and with fewer levels. The first letter of the first word in each heading should be capitalized. The first letter of the first word after a colon may also be capitalized in headings. Proper nouns should always be capitalized whether they appear in a heading, title, or main content of article.
- Main headings are in bold type. They may include question marks, colons and semi-colons and hyphenated words. They may not include exclamation marks or full stops. Times New Roman 18 pt.
- Subheadings are italicized. Times New Roman 16 pt. They may include question marks, colons and semi-colons and hyphenated words. They may not include exclamation marks or full stops.
- Sub-sub headings appear in italics as the first sentence of a paragraph, whereby the text runs on.
- The corresponding author’s name, affiliation and contact details should appear in the footer on the opening page of the article i.e. Corresponding author: John Smith, AIMTech Research Group, University of Leeds, UK Email: J.Smith@leedsuniversity.ac.uk Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Conclusion. The heading ‘Conclusion’ should be used. Alternative formulations such as ‘Concluding remarks’ are also acceptable. Subtitles can be used for ‘Conclusion’.
- Acknowledgements. In a separate paragraph, the author may acknowledge others. This paragraph is included after the main body of the article. Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Funding. In a separate paragraph, specify if funding was provided; by whom and include award number. If not, include the standard term that ‘There is no funding to report for this article’ . Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Notes. SST uses endnotes. Notes should be used only where substantive information is conveyed to the reader. Literature references should normally not necessitate separate notes (see the section on References). However, non-standard references, such as to press conferences, political statements, hearings, interviews etc., are best provided as notes. It is better to change note number from the standard roman letters to Arabic, in case there is a very long list of notes, where it is harder for modern readers or non-Western readers to identify xiv as 14. Placement of note number should be after the punctuation e.g. : .[i] ; Times New Roman 12 pt.
- References in text. Identify all references to books, monographs, articles and other sources at an appropriate point in the main text by author’s last name, year of publication, and pagination where appropriate, all within parentheses. Specify subsequent citations of the same source similarly – do not use ibid., op cit. or loc. cit. Times New Roman 12 pt. Further details on references in separate section below.
- Format of quotations within the text. For quotations within the text, use single inverted commas on all occasions, except for a quotation within a quotation, which should be placed within double inverted commas. Quotations longer than two or three sentences (about 40 words) should be put in an indented paragraph format without the use of inverted commas, with a line space above and below, separating it from the text.
- Biographical statement. All authors of an article may add a brief author biographical statement. This should be included at the very end of their article (after References). Authors are encouraged to add their e-mail address(es) to their biographical statement. Each statement should be no longer than 80-100 words.
- Table/figure. Each table/figure should be self-explanatory, as far as possible. The table/figure heading will appear above the table, figure headings below.
The table/figure heading should be brief, but additional explanatory material may be added in ‘notes’. Each table/figure should also contain a full reference to the source(s) used. The source reference should appear below the table/figure and in the reference section of the manuscript, not in the ‘notes’ section but in the text, e.g. : (See Table 1), or in Table 1 I show that …
Authors should indicate where the table(s)/figure(s) is to appear in their manuscript by adding a text indicator; this should be inserted after the paragraph where the table/figure is first mentioned, in the following manner:
___________ Table I in here ____________
- Copyright. SST is licensed under a Creative Commons (CC) Attribution 4.0 International License which allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in SST, but may not be used for commercial purposes without prior permission. The responsibility for respecting copyright in the quotations of a published article and other copyright protected material such as images rests with the author(s). The managing editor will liaise with the author directly to ensure that images and illustrations have copyright permission if this is necessary.
Style of writing
The main objective of an academic journal is to communicate clearly with an international audience. Elegance in style is a secondary aim. The basic criterion should be clarity of expression.
- English should follow the UK spelling, e.g. use -ize (standardize, normalize) but -yse (analyse, paralyse), and punctuation are accepted as long as there is consistency within the article.
- SST uses gender-neutral language wherever possible, and ‘avoid bias’ to ensure that all forms or bias are avoided.
- Authors should avoid colloquialisms, acronyms and abbreviations particularly if linked to a particular national culture.
- The acronyms: UN, USA, EU and UK (no full stops) are accepted. Otherwise, an acronym or abbreviation should be spelled out the first time it occurs.
- Use ‘the USA’ or ‘the United States’ (not ‘America’) for the name of that particular country, and ‘US’ as an adjective.
- When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series of three or more, a comma—known as the serial or series comma or the Oxford comma—should appear before the conjunction. If the last element consists of a pair joined by and, the pair should still be preceded by a serial comma and the first and (e.g. ‘red, white, and blue’)i.
All articles will be subject to editing by the editor and the language editor. Manuscripts that will require heavy editing may be returned to the author for correction, clarification of misunderstandings and possibly additional rounds of word processing prior to copy-editing. When corrections are made in the final version, there is usually no time for further consultation with the author, but the proofs (see below) provide the author an opportunity to correct any misunderstandings.
Format of references
- References should be provided in a separate alphabetical list; they should not be incorporated in the notes. When citing books or articles in the text or in notes, use the following form:
- See Smith (1997); Brem and Rutherford (2001); Taylor (1996, 1999)
- or in alphabetical order in the text: (Brem, 2017; Groat, 2018; Taylor, 1978)
- or if 3 or more authors: (Brem et al.)
- or: See Smith (1997: 22-24)
- or: (Smith, 1997: 22-24)
- or: (Smith, 1997; Taylor, 1996)
- or: (Smith, 1997: 22; Taylor, 1996: 6)
- or: For further discussion, see Smith (1997).
Commas are used to separate the author from the year, colons to separate the year from the page number, and semicolons to separate two references. References to two publications by the same author are written as follows:
- Wallensteen (1995, 1996)
- or: Wallensteen (1995a,b)
- All direct quotes must be accompanied by page numbers.
- When there are more than three authors ‘et al.’ is used in text references, and may be used in the reference list, however, here a full list of authors is preferable.
- All references quoted in the text must appear in the reference list, and vice versa. This should be checked carefully. Please ensure also that spellings and dates match in all cases.
on in non-italicized font in the same paragraph. Times New Roman 12 pt.
Articles and other citations should be listed together in the references in accordance with Harvard style:
- Articles from periodicals
Stepputat F (2012) Knowledge production in the security-development nexus: an ethnographic reflection. Security Dialogue 43(5): 439-455.
Stepputat F, Wibben ATR & Meek S (2018) Knowledge production in the security-development nexus: an ethnographic reflection. Security Dialogue 43(5): 439-455.
Wibben ATR (2010) Feminist Security Studies: A Narrative Approach. Abingdon: Routledge.
- Foreign-language works
Greilsammer I (1998) La nouvelle histoire: essai sur une nouvelle identité nationale [The New History: Reflections on a New National Identity]. Paris: Gallimard.
- Chapters/articles from books
Meek S (2000) Combating arms trafficking: progress and prospects. In: Stepputat F, Wibben ATR & Meek S (eds) Running Guns: The Global Black Market in Small Arms. London: Zed, 183-206.
European Commission (2009) Commission staff working document on health security in the European Union and internationally. 23 November. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/preparedness_response/docs/ommission_staff_healthsecurity_en.pdf.
- UN reports
Include the authorizing body, year, topic or title of the paper, series and publication numbers, place of publication, and a page reference when applicable. For references in the text, use, for example: (United Nations, 2002)
United Nations (2002) On the Situation in the Middle East. Security Council Resolution 1428, S/RES/1428, New York.
However, we accept alternative styles for UN documents, provided that they are complete and consistent.
- Newspaper articles
Articles with author byline: Finnonian A (1990) The Iron Curtain rises. Wilberton Journal, 7 February.
Articles without author byline: The Guardian (2002) Croatia sparks showdown with UN. London, 25 September.
Please note that the city of publication should be provided where this is not included in the title of the newspaper.
- Internet references
Providing supplementary information on magazine, journal or newspaper article:
Stillman S (2011) The invisible army. The New Yorker, 6 June. Available at:
Providing links to general web pages:
Prime Minister’s Office, (2002). Weekly Cabinet meeting Tuesday 10.9.2002. Israel, Press release. Available at: http://www.pmo.gov.il/english/ts.exe?tsurl=0.22.6593.0.0 (accessed 18 September 2002).
Dividing URLs and e-mail addresses. It is often necessary to break an e-mail address or a uniform resource identifier such as a URL at the end of a line. Such a break should be made between elements if at all possible: after a colon or a double slash; before or after an equals sign or an ampersand; or before a single slash, a period, or any other punctuation or symbols. To avoid confusion, an address that contains a hyphen should never be broken at the hyphen; nor should a hyphen be added to break an e-mail address or URL. If a particularly long element must be broken to avoid a seriously loose line, it should be broken between syllables.
[i] after punctuation
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.